Some fertility treatments require donor sperm. Just like with egg donation, sperm donation must be done following the requirements of the law. The donor has to do physical, medical and psicological tests so that the process is done with maximum security.
When is sperm donation recommended?
The most frequent cases when sperm donation is needed are the following:
- Patients who have not been able to produce spermatozoids in at least 2 ejaculations
- Sperm quality is not good enough
- They is a risk of transmiting genetic diseases
When the men has HIV, it is not always necessary to look for sperm donors. There is a possibility to make a sperm cleaning which would prevent the transmision of the disease.
Phases of Sperm Donation Treatment
The phases for a sperm donation treatment are very similar to those in IVF treatments because the process in the laboratory is the same.
- DONOR SELECTION AND OVARIC STIMULATION
- A sperm donor is selected with similar physical characteristics to those of the man (in the case of couples) or to the woman (in case of single women or couples between two women)
- The women needs to take medication (hormones) which will stimulate the ovaries so that they produce various ovocites during the cicle
- Ultrasound scans are done constantly to follow the evolution and growth of the ovocites
- Blood samples will be taken once or twice to control estradiol and verify the maturity of the eggs
- EGG COLLECTION AND SPERM SAMPLE DEVITRIFICATION
- When the doctor observes thay the eggs are mature, an egg collection is done with anestetic sedation
- The egg collection is done guided by ultrasound
- This process lasts approximately 15 minutes
- At the same time, the sperm sample is devitrified
- LABORATORY – FERTILIZATION PROCESS
- The eggs and spermatozoids are joined in the laboratory and they are placed inside an incubator which will have the appropiate atmosphere for fertilization and embrionary development. The percentage of successful fertilization is about 85%
- The embryos are observed by the embriologist who will make sure that there is a correct embrionary development during the next 3 to 5 days
- EMBRYO TRANSFER
- The embryo transfer is performed between the third and sixth day, introducing a maximum of 2 embryos
- The embryos are placed in a catheter and are introduced through the vagina to place them in the uterine cavity
- We recommend the patient to rest during 24 hours after the transfer and we will give her recommendations for the post transfer care
- EMBRYO VITRIFICATION
- The remaining embryos are vitrified (frozen) to use them in a future cycle
- PREGNANCY TEST
- After 7 or 12 days a blood sample will be taken to do a pregnancy test and confirm if pregnancy has been archieved
The success rate of a sperm donation treatment are similar to those of an IVF treatment. The age and the number of embryos transfered are very important factors. The pregnancy rate of an IVF treatment with donor sperm is approximately 50%.